By Ghiani G., Laporte G.
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Extra info for A Branch-and-cut Algorithm for the Undirected Rural Postman Problem
For example, if you wanted to see all subjects in alphabetical order, you would use the following query: SELECT subject FROM subjects ORDER BY subject You can also order by multiple fields. For example, to print out an alphabetical list of patrons, you could use this one: SELECT * FROM patrons ORDER BY last_name, first_name The result of this search would be the entire contents of the patrons table, ordered by last_name and, within last_name, by first_name. MULTIPLE TABLES Although the previous queries are useful in querying sin- gle tables, the full power of relational databases comes in the user’s being able to retrieve information from anywhere in the system.
16 D ATA B A S E B A S I C S 31 However, it is possible to force case sensitivity by using the BINARY operator on one of the elements in the search. For example, the following two (equivalent) searches will retrieve records where France (but not france) is in the title field: SELECT * FROM books WHERE BINARY title LIKE '%France%' SELECT * FROM books WHERE title LIKE BINARY '%France%' Just as command line searching in OPACs, SQL does enable you to provide multiple conditions with its Boolean operators AND and OR.
Therefore, rather than spending time on dealing with these vagaries, I have standardized on lowercase for all database, table, and field names, something that is fairly normal in relational databases. Figure 3-1 Before going on, let me take a minute and explain the potentially very confusing concept of NULL versus NOT NULL. ” Although it is perfectly possible—and for the most part legal in MySQL—to define a field as NOT NULL and then define the default as an empty string, the two are not the same and can cause you problems in the most unexpected ways.