By John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Ronald J. Deibert
Many nations all over the world block or clear out net content material, denying entry to information--often approximately politics, but in addition when it comes to sexuality, tradition, or religion--that they deem too delicate for usual electorate. entry Denied files and analyzes web filtering practices in over 3 dozen nations, delivering the 1st carefully carried out research of this accelerating trend.
Internet filtering occurs in a minimum of 40 states all over the world together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. comparable web content material keep an eye on mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the U.S. and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of world net filtering undertaken by means of the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman heart for web and Society at Harvard legislation institution, the Citizen Lab on the college of Toronto, the Oxford net Institute at Oxford collage, and the college of Cambridge) and counting on paintings through local specialists and an intensive community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, felony, social, and cultural contexts of web filtering in those states from numerous views. Chapters talk about the mechanisms and politics of web filtering, the strengths and barriers of the expertise that powers it, the relevance of foreign legislation, moral concerns for companies that provide states with the instruments for blockading and filtering, and the results of net filtering for activist groups that more and more depend upon net applied sciences for speaking their missions.
Reports on net content material rules in 40 diverse nations stick to, with each one nation profile outlining the kinds of content material blocked via class and documenting key findings.
* bankruptcy 1: Measuring international web Filtering
* bankruptcy 2: web Filtering: The Politics and Mechanisms of Control
* bankruptcy three: instruments and know-how of net Filtering
* bankruptcy four: Filtering and the overseas method: a question of Commitment
* bankruptcy five: Reluctant Gatekeepers: company Ethics on a Filtered Internet
* bankruptcy 6: stable for Liberty, undesirable for defense? international Civil Society and the Securitization of the net
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Extra resources for Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering
Shtml is blocked. United Arab Emirates, Oman, Sudan, and Tunisia also use SmartFilter. Tunisia uses SmartFilter as a proxy to filter the Internet. But instead of showing users a blockpage indicating that the site has been blocked, they have created a blockpage that looks like the Internet Explorer browser’s default error page (in French), presumably to disguise the fact that they are blocking Web sites. A proxy-based filtering system can also be programmed such that Internet traffic passing through the filtering system is reassembled and the specific HTTP address requested is checked against a list of blocked keywords.
Org/). 6. The strategies for addressing alleged intellectual property rights violations can vary significantly from standard Internet filtering. Rather than blocking Web sites that continue to be available from other locations, efforts generally focus on taking down the content from the Web sites that have posted the material and on removing the sites from the results of search engines. Moreover, takedown efforts are often instigated by private parties with the threat of subsequent legal action rather than being initiated by government action.
Once the technical and administrative mechanisms for blocking Internet content have been put into place, it is a trivial matter to expand the scope of Internet censorship. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the implementation of filtering is often carried by private sector actors— normally the ISPs—using software developed in the United States. Filtering decisions are thus often made by selecting categories for blocking within software applications, which may also contain categorization errors resulting in unintended blocking.