By Dirac

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2 Giovanni Amelino-Camelia Interferometry and string cosmology Up to this point I have only reviewed experiments probing foamy properties of space-time in the sense of Wheeler and Hawking. A diﬀerent type of quantumgravity eﬀect which might produce a signature strong enough for experimental testing has been discussed in the context of studies of a cosmology based on critical superstrings [76]. While for a description of this cosmology and of its physical signatures I must only refer the reader to the recent reviews in Ref.

The type of in vacuo dispersion which can be tested [5] using observations of gamma rays from distant astrophysical sources is naturally encoded within a consistent deformation of Poincar´e symmetries [23,27,28]. A useful structure (at least for toy-model purposes, but perhaps even more than that) appears to be the noncommutative (so-called “κ”) Minkowski spacetime [62,63,21] [xi , t] = ıλ xi , [xi , xj ] = 0 (38) where i, j = 1, 2, 3 and λ (commonly denoted22 by 1/κ) is a free length scale. This simple noncommutative space-time could be taken as a basis for an eﬀective description of phenomena associated to a nontrivial foamy quantum-gravity vacuum23 .

43] and in the analysis of measurability of distances reported in Ref. [45]. Although once again the deﬁnitions of “min” Quantum-gravity phenomenology 39 and “δD” used in these studies are completely diﬀerent from the ones relevant for the “min[δD]” of Eq. (35). 10 Quantum gravity, no strings attached Some of the arguments reviewed in these lecture notes appear to suggest that quantum gravity might require a mechanics not exactly of the type of ordinary quantum mechanics. In particular, the new mechanics might have to accommodate a somewhat diﬀerent relationship (in a sense, “more democratic”) between “system” and “measuring apparatus”, and should take into account the fact that the limit in which the apparatus behaves classically is not accessible once gravitation is turned on.