By Chester S. Ho (Eds.)
Animal phone tradition is answerable for more than a few medically vital items, similar to vaccines, antibodies, hormones, cytokines, development elements and enzymes. As those items are advancing towards commercialization, the biotechnology has quickly elevated the potential requirement for large-scale ''in vitro'' creation of animal cells and their items. This e-book makes a speciality of the underlying rules and methods in the back of ''in vitro'' telephone cultures
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Additional info for Animal Cell Bioreactors
T h e r e are p r o b a b l y few signaling p a t h w a y s still to be discovered. A m o n g those k n o w n , s o m e interactions h a v e been noted. O n e pathway m a y antagonise (inhibit) or positively affect the others (Kikkawa a n d N i s h i z u k a 1986). T h e m e m b r a n e p r o t e i n s ( a n d receptors) h a v e been categorized according to extracellular, t r a n s m e m b r a n e , a n d cytosolic d o m a i n typology (Figure 2-9). T h e corresponding effector molecules are either n o t k n o w n or form an integral part of the receptor molecule.
36 Implications of Cell Biology in Animal Cell Biotechnology inserts of tyrosine kinase (SDS II) (Yarden a n d Ullrich 1988a a n d 1988b). Such categorization does n o t fit into the a b o v e s c h e m e of types of the SDS. In m a n y SDS, the n u m b e r of receptors is u n d e r s o m e regulation at the level of gene expression. In m a n y other cases, receptor activity is m o d u l a t e d by covalent modification: phosphorylation, glycosylation, etc. In the a d e n ylate cyclase system, receptor is modified by the coupling protein ( G P ) , others are u n d e r an endocytosis cycle regulation.
T h e initial b i n d i n g (heterophillic) of a cell to a s u b s t r a t u m m a y be via o n e or two S A M molecules (see Figure 2 - 1 3 C ) or directly to a s u b s t r a t u m through s u b s t r a t u m "cell r e c e p t o r " (see Figure 2 - 1 3 C ) . T h e S A M family includes as m a n y as 30 molecules, a m o n g t h e m collagen, l a m i n i n , fibronectin, vitronectin, etc. (Kornblihtt a n d G u t m a n 1988). T h e a t t a c h m e n t of fibronectin to cells is m e d i a t e d via Arg-Gly-Asp ( R G D ) sequence located within the cell-binding region of the fibronectin molecule receptor ( R u o s lahti 1988).