Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are? by Frans de Waal

By Frans de Waal

What separates your brain from an animal’s? might be you think that it’s your skill to layout instruments, your experience of self, or your snatch of earlier and future―all characteristics that experience helped us outline ourselves because the planet’s preeminent species. yet in fresh many years, those claims have eroded, or maybe been disproven outright, through a revolution within the learn of animal cognition. Take the way in which octopuses use coconut shells as instruments; elephants that classify people through age, gender, and language; or Ayumu, the younger male chimpanzee at Kyoto college whose flash reminiscence places that of people to disgrace. in line with examine concerning crows, dolphins, parrots, sheep, wasps, bats, whales, and naturally chimpanzees and bonobos, Frans de Waal explores either the scope and the intensity of animal intelligence. He deals a firsthand account of the way technological know-how has stood conventional behaviorism on its head by way of revealing how clever animals fairly are, and the way we’ve underestimated their skills for too long.

People frequently imagine a cognitive ladder, from decrease to better varieties, with our personal intelligence on the most sensible. yet what whether it is extra like a bush, with cognition taking assorted varieties which are frequently incomparable to ours? may you presume your self dumber than a squirrel simply because you’re much less adept at recalling the destinations of enormous quantities of buried acorns? Or might you pass judgement on your belief of your atmosphere as extra subtle than that of a echolocating bat? De Waal reports the increase and fall of the mechanistic view of animals and opens our minds to the concept animal minds are way more elaborate and intricate than we have now assumed. De Waal’s landmark paintings will persuade you to reconsider every thing you concept you knew approximately animal―and human―intelligence.

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Deux pierres de masses différentes) qu’on laisse tomber simultanément arrivent au sol en même temps. En fait, une plume tombe aussi vite qu’une pierre dans le vide. Aristote, à la suite de cette observation naturelle ou spontanée de plumes, de feuilles et de pierres énonça sa loi de la chute des corps, alors que ce n’était tout au plus qu’une hypothèse. • L’observation scientifique Il s’agit de chercher à obtenir de l’information qui confirmera ou non une idée préconçue ou une hypothèse de départ.

Ainsi, on pourra distinguer entre le concept «cercle» et le concept «sphère», qui ont plusieurs points communs mais qui se distinguent au moins par une caractéristique. Nous pouvons définir la classification comme une opération qui consiste à partager un ensemble d’objets, de phénomènes, d’états ou d’événements en classes ou catégories et à hiérarchiser systématiquement celles-ci selon un ou plusieurs critères. La classification sépare les éléments du monde naturel en classes de plus en plus petites ou de plus en plus distinctes.

Le regroupement d’objets en garçons ou filles, en vertébrés ou invertébrés, en vivants ou non-vivants sont des exemples d’un monde dichotomique. En réalité, les objets, les phénomènes et les événements peuvent prendre plusieurs intensités ou valeurs. Il n’est pas toujours possible de classifier les objets de l’environnement en deux groupes. Par exemple, il serait impossible de les regrouper en objets chauds et en objets froids, car il existe dans la nature des objets très chauds, des objets chauds, des objets moyennement chauds, des objets froids et des objets très froids.

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