ASM Handbook, Volume 9: Metallography And Microstructures by ASM

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Extra resources for ASM Handbook, Volume 9: Metallography And Microstructures (ASM Handbook)

Sample text

One convenient system, however, is to classify the processes as machining, grinding and abrasion, or polishing. Machining involves the use of tools having cutting edges of controlled shape, as in conventional machine shop practice. Examples are sawing, lathe turning, milling, and filing. These processes normally are used only for the preliminary stages of preparation and do not require particular attention here. Grinding and abrasion employ an array of fixed abrasive particles whose projecting points act as the cutting tools.

Vibratory polishing methods, in which the specimen is made to track automatically around the polishing cloth by imparting a suitable vibratory motion to the polishing head, are useful for final polishing because they operate automatically and permit accurate control of polishing conditions. Results are highly reproducible once the controlling variables have been identified and optimized. A further advantage of vibratory polishing is that it can be adapted to chemical-mechanical polishing. The important variables in vibratory polishing are the abrasive, the nature of the liquid in which the abrasive is suspended, and the load applied to the specimen.

As-polished. 250× Retention of Graphite in Gray Iron. Earlier in this article it was demonstrated that although the graphite in cast iron can be damaged severely by abrasion, it is possible by suitable choice of abrasion process to obtain a reasonably true representation of the structure. However, there is the problem of retaining the graphite during polishing. The solution to the problem depends heavily on the length of the nap of the polishing cloth. Graphite flakes in a gray iron invariably look much larger when a long-nap cloth is used for polishing, as demonstrated in Fig.

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