Assisting Emigration to Upper Canada: The Petworth Project, by Wendy Cameron

By Wendy Cameron

Using a wealthy selection of modern resources, this learn specializes in one crew of English immigrants despatched to higher Canada from Sussex and different southern counties because of parishes and landlords. partially One, Wendy Cameron follows the paintings of the Petworth Emigration Committee over six years and hint how the immigrants have been acquired in every one of those years. partially , Mary McDougall Maude provides an entire record of emigrants on Petworth ships from 1832 to 1837, together with information in their history, kin reconstructions, and extra details drawn from Canadian assets. Paternalism powerful sufficient to sluggish the wheels of swap is embodied right here in Thomas Sockett, the organizer of the Petworth emigrations, and his consumer, the Earl of Egremont, and in Lieutenant Governor Sir John Colborne in higher Canada. The friction created as those males sought to maintain older values within the courting among wealthy and terrible highlights the shift in British emigration coverage. In those years of transition immigrants despatched via the Petworth Emigration Committee may perhaps settle for suggestions and the govt. course that went with it, or they can depend upon their very own assets and locate paintings for themselves. as soon as the transition was once entire, the market-driven version took over and immigrants needed to make their very own top cut price for his or her labour.

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9 Soldiers, members of Peel's new London police, or the coast guard could bring any one situation under control; the difficult question facing the government was how to deploy limited forces without risking being caught seriously out of position by the next outbreaks. Magistrates carried a heavy responsibility for law and order in rural England in 1830. The methods of both rural mobs and their rulers had roots in the traditions of a society where very few controlled the many. 12 Although the radical town of Horsham, northeast of Petworth on the London road, caused him and his son-inlaw Sir Charles Burrell prolonged concern,13 the disturbances Egremont confronted in his district were not serious enough to cause him to question methods of social 28 THE PETWORTH E M I G R A T I O N S , 1 8 3 2 - 1 8 3 7 control that had served him well in the past and seemed to him to be a sufficient response in 1830.

Man and wife and 1 child Is. 8d. Man and wife Is. 6d. Single man over 18 years of age Is. Youths aged 15 to 18 8d. SOURCE: WSRO, PHA 8558, Petworth parish vestry, 17 November 1830. a The wage scale stops at two children because in Petworth a child allowance was paid to families with three or more young children. 27 What was "right" constrained the earl as well as the farmers. In practice, Egremont continued — after 1830 as before — to treat his labourers rather better than the community norm, but he always respected the expectations of local farmers that he would not pay wages and benefits too far out of line with theirs.

He backed Sockett s emigration scheme as a humanitarian way of encouraging workers who could not earn a living to move away from his district permanently. After his patron's death in November 1837, Sockett was unable to charter another ship for emigrants from Sussex. With each year that passed without major disturbances in the countryside, government support for the measure weakened, and the lobby for government-sponsored assisted emigration to British North America lost out to a stronger lobby demanding poor law reform.

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