By Jack Barrett
Barrett J. Atomic constitution and periodicity (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002)(ISBN 0854046577)
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Extra info for Atomic structure and periodicity
The selection of the code letters seems, and is, illogical in that the first four are the initial letters of the words sharp, principal, diffuse and fundamental, words used by 19th century spectroscopists to describe aspects of line spectra. The fifth letter, g, follows on alphabetically, the sixth being h and so on. The numerical value of n and the code letter for the value of 1 are sufficient for a general description of an atomic orbital. The main differences between atomic orbitals with different 1 values are concerned with their orientations in space, and those with different n values have different sizes.
4s + 3d in the individual atom). The removal of the electrons alters the 4s-3d energy gap to ensure that there are no instances of 4s orbital occupancy in the ionized species. Irregularities in the configurations of the elements 0 - the second and third transition series, and of the lanthanides and actinides, are described below, and their origins and explanations can be described in terms similar to those used for the first transition series. The next orbitals to be used in building up the elements are the 4p set, which are filled in a regular fashion in the elements gallium to argon, thus completing the fourth period (or first long period) of the Periodic Table.
1 1): E, = -22 x 1312 = -5248 kJ mol-I, giving a value for the ionization energy of He+ of +5248 kJ mol-l. e. g. ). 1 l), giving E(lsHe) = -41,. The energy of the 2s orbital of helium is given by putting n = 2, so that E(2sHe)= -IH. s' configuration of -51H. An estimate of the interelectronic repulsion energy in the Is' configuration allows a conclusion to be made as to which of the two possible configurations is appropriate to the ground state of the helium atom. e. e. e. exactly equal to 4iH).