By Radhika Herzberger
The Viikyapadiya of Bhartrhari and the Pramii1Jasamuccaya of Dignaga • are seminal texts within the heritage of historic Indian philosophy. One textual content offers with grammar, the opposite with common sense, either are the paintings of devoted metaphysicians. Written inside a span of under 100 years, among the 5th and the 6th centuries A.D., those texts have more often than not been handled individually, as representing self sustaining colleges of idea. This essay makes an attempt to interpret those texts together, as a discussion among a grammarian and a philosopher. this fashion of imminent those texts highlights unforeseen elements of Bhartrhari's and Dignaga's theories of language and is meant to spot the person achievements of every. certainly, this therapy is an workout in writing the highbrow background of a interval in time, instead of a historical past of a faculty of philosophy. the present view of Bhartrhari holds that his linguistic suggestions will not be intrinsic to his metaphysics. The conclusions reached within the current essay are that Bhartrhari's metaphysics underlie his linguistic innovations and articulate their presuppositions. the present view of Dignaga keeps that for him language offers with illusory entities and needs to falsify what's genuine. The conclusions reached within the current essay are that Dignaga's logical ideas are designed to make sure that in utilizing language one isn't dedicated to a trust in fictional entities. My debt to fashionable scholarship within the box is considerable.
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Extra resources for Bhartṛhari and the Buddhists: An Essay in the Development of Fifth and Sixth Century Indian Thought
The first verse of the JS describes a variety of contending theories. 13 Having first artificially analysed them from a sentence alone, some divide words in two ways, in four or even five ways, in the same way [as a word is artificially divided] into suffix/ prefix and base. lSI The commentary to the stanza gives the details of these contending theories, details which are unimportant in view of the next stanza, which subsumes these categories under universals and individual things: When meaning of words is artificially analysed, universals or individuals emerge as what is meant by all words.
Heliiriija, for instance, read a second aphorism of Kiityiiyana's in tandem with the one already quoted; according to Heliiriija the two aphorisms reflect the two sides of the naming situation - the side of the object or bearer and the side of the name. 119 by me, is presented by Heliiriija in the following manner: 51 "That quality because of whose presence ... l19) in this view the derivation signifies the object - thus the being of a cow is cowness. l19) in this view, on the other hand, the derivation signifies the word - thus the being of the word 'cow' is 'cowness'.
Before I present my evidence for Bhartrhari's conception of "the effect of universals", I would like to state very briefly, by way of summing up JS7 -S, what I consider to be the essential features from which this effect derives. "The effect of universals" derives from the hierarchical structure to which a universal located in a name has access. Participating in this hierarchical structure, a universal has access to the universals located in other names. Thus the name sinJsapii has access through its universal, sinJsapiitvam to vrk~atvam (tree ness) which is located in the name vrk~a.