By Wolfgang H. Reinicke
The recent international atmosphere calls for new methods, new principles and cutting edge instruments to handle new demanding situations in components as various as guns keep watch over, weather swap, genetic engineering, and exertions criteria. severe offerings seems to be at one such device: worldwide public coverage networks. In those networks, governments, overseas organisations, the company quarter and civil society sign up for jointly to accomplish what none can accomplish by itself. The authors discover either the guarantees and the restrictions of this new kind of international cooperation. They speak about how such networks could give a contribution to higher deal with the dangers and utilize the possibilities that globalization provides. ultimately, they give provocative recommendation and strong tips on how the United countries can foster such networks within the years forward.
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Additional resources for Critical Choices. The United Nations, Networks, and the Future of Global Governance
General Accounting Office 1993a). Similarly, David Nachmias and David Rosenbloom (1973) developed a Measure of Variation (MV) that compares the total number of observed 26 • Why Look Like America* differences within a group to the maximum number of possible differences. That is, it compares the total number of pairs of employees who are from different ethnic for gender) groups to the total number of possible pairs of employees from different ethnic (or gender) groups, yielding a number between 0 and 1.
Why Look Like America? • 21 In contrast, the Court invalidated a minority set-aside program employed by the city of Richmond, Virginia. In writing for the Court, Justice O'Connor stressed that state and local governments do not have the power Congress does to decide when such remedies are appropriate (Richmond v. A. S. 489 ). Where Congress finds that minority ownership policies are needed to promote diversity, and that such diversity is an important governmental objective, reasoned Justice O'Connor, such policies are constitutional.
The divergent perspectives of various presidential administrations on EEO and affirmative action are also reflected in the shifting positions taken by the EEOC. During the Carter administration, for example, in 1980, the EEOC introduced a results-oriented approach to affirmative action with quantifiable goals and timetables. In its 1981 guidance to federal agencies (amended and reissued in 1983), the EEOC noted, "Federal agencies are obligated to undertake affirmative action under Section 717 of Title VII of The Macro-Political Environment • 37 the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended.