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Additional resources for Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++ IE
14) new operator Dynamically allocates memory. (p. 2 I ) Arrays, Pointers, and Structures pointer Has value 0 and can never be dereferenced; it is used to state that a pointer is pointing nowhere. (p. 19) pointer Stores an address where other data resides. (p. 4) reference type An alias that may be viewed as a pointer constant that is always dereferenced implicitly. (p. 24) shallow copy A copy of pointers rather than the data being pointed at. (P. 30) stale pointer A pointer whose value no longer refers to a valid object.
Doing so is known as dereferencing the pointer. An aggregate is a collection of objects stored in one unit. The array is the basic mechanism for storing a collection of identically-typed objects. A different type of aggregate type is the structure, which stores a collection of objects that need not be of the same type. As a somewhat abstract example, consider the layout of an apartment building. Each floor might have a one-bedroom unit, a two-bedroom unit, a three-bedroom unit, and a laundry room.
The syntax for both methods is more or less the same; however, the vector is much easier and slightly safer to use than the primitive array and is preferred for most applications. The major philosophical difference between the two is that the vector behaves as a first-class type (even though it is implemented in a library), whereas the primitive array is a second-class type. In this section we examine what is meant by first-class and second-class types and show you how to use the vector and string.