By American Welding Society
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Additional resources for Design and planning manual : for cost-effective welding
1). 2). Making full penetration welds on very thick material for these types of loads can cause higher residual stress than the anticipated service loads. In some cases, particularly on heavy sections, weld failures will be experienced during fabrication before service loads are imposed. Often welds that are subject to shear stresses can be designed to be 50% efficient, thereby allowing partial penetration joint designs or lower-strength welds to be used. Welding defects that are placed in compression or shear while in service are much less critical than those placed in tension by service loads.
Welds Create a Discontinuity in the Base Material Standardize Component Welding Design The designer always must keep in mind that a weld does not create a monolithic structure that has uniform properties throughout. Welds do not act the same as the base metal and they have different properties. Welds are, in fact, a discontinuity (a stress riser) in the structure— caused by their metallurgical, chemical, and mechanical property differences. Because welds are different than the base metal, they must be given special design consideration.
Permanent weld stations are made fire safe. , tanks which have contained or presently contain flammable or healthhazardous material and air-tight compartments or voids which have been closed for long periods of time. (4) Design assemblies to utilize automated systems wherever possible. • Do not weld on tanks that contain or have contained combustible material or liquids unless they have been inerted according to IAW local instructions. • Do not weld when material or personnel are improperly supported or staged.