By G Pilu; K H Nicolaides
content material: creation average perspectives for exam of the Fetus imperative apprehensive process general Sonograpic Anatomy Neural Tube Defects Hydrocephalus and Ventriculomegaly Holoprosenceophaly Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Dandy-Walker advanced Microcephaly Megalencephaly damaging Cerebral Lesions Choroid Plexus Cysts Vein of Galen Aneurysm Face common Sonographic Anatomy Orbital Defects Facial Cleft Micrognathia Cardiovascular approach, P. Jeanty and G. Pilu evaluate of the Fetal middle Atrial Septal Defects Ventricular Septal Defects Atrioventicular Septal Defects Cardiosplenic Syndromes Univentricular center Aortic Stenosis Coarctation and Tubular Hypoplasia of the Aorta Interrupted Aortic Arch Hypoplastic Left middle Syndrome Pulmonary Stenosis and Pulmonary Artesia Conotruncal Malformations Transposition of the nice Arteries Double-Outlet correct Ventricle Tetralogy of Fallot Truncus Arteriosus Communis Ebstein's Anomaly and Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia Echogenic Foci Cardiac Dysrhythmias: untimely Contractions Cardiac Dysrhythmias: Tachyarrhymthias Cardiac Dysrhythmias: whole Atrioventricular Block Pulmonary Abnormalities Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of the Lung Diaphragmatic Hernia Pleural Effusions Sequestration of the Lungs Anterior belly Wall common Sonographic Anatomy Exomphalos Gastroschisis physique Stalk Anomaly Bladder Exstrophy and Cloacal Exstrophy Gastrointestinal Tract general Sonographic Anatomy Esophageal Atresia Duodenal Atresia Intestinal Obstruction Hirschsprung's affliction Meconium Peritonitis Hepatosplenomegaly Hepatic Calcifications stomach Cysts Kidneys and Urinary Tract common Sonographic Anatomy Renal Agnesis childish Polycystic Kidney affliction (Potter kind I) Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney disorder (Potter sort II) Potter kind III Renal Dysplasia Obstructive Uropathies Skeleton, G. Pilu and R. Romero common Sonographic Anatomy Skeletal Anomalies Osteochondrodysplasias Limb Deficiency or Congenital Amputations break up Hand and Foot Syndrome Clubhands Polydactyly Fetal Akinesia Deformation series (FADS) good points of Chromosomal Defects, okay. Nicolaides and R. Snijders Phenotypic Expression probability for Chromosomal Defects Fetal Tumors, I. Meizner advent Intracranial Tumors Tumors of the Face and Neck Tumors of the Thorax Tumors of the stomach and Retroperitoneum Tumors of the surface Hydrops Fetalis Small for Gestational Age Abnormalities of the amniotic fluid quantity Appendix I: possibility of significant trisomies with regards to maternal age and gestation Appendix II: Antenatal sonographic findings in skeletal dysplasias Appendix III: Fetal biometry at 14-40 weeks of gestation websites delivering worthy info for prenatal prognosis Index.
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Extra info for Diagnosis of fetal abnormalities : the 18-23-week scan
T h e in sertion o f the tricuspid valve along th e in terv en tricu lar septum is m o re apical th an the insertion o f the m itral valve. T h e co nfluence o f the pulm o n ary veins in to the left atriu m serves to id e n tify it as such. A b o u t 90% o f ultrasonographically detectable fetal cardiac defects d em onstrate som e abnorm alities in this view . E valuation o f the cardiac o u tflo w tracts can be difficult, b u t it is im p o rtan t to attem pt such an exam ination because this im proves the d etec tio n rate o f m any ab n o r malities o f the heart and great arteries.
T h ese include atrioventricular septal defects (found in 4% o f cases), and absence o f th e p u lm o n ary valve (found in less than 2% o f cases). H y p e rtro p h y o f the right ventricle, o n e o f th e classic elem ents o f the tetrad, is always absent in the fetus, and only develops after birth. Prevalence T etralogy o f Fallot is fo u n d in ab o u t 1 p e r 3000 births. Diagnosis E ch ocardiographic diagnosis o f tetralogy o f Fallot relies on the dem o n stratio n o f a ventricular septal defect in th e o u tlet p o rtio n o f the septum and an o v erriding aorta.
T h e an terio r w all o f the aorta is in co n tin u ity w ith the in terv en tricu lar septum . T h e view s o f the rig h t heart dem onstrate the right ventricle and the right v e n tricular o u tflo w tract. T h e m ain p u lm o n ary artery originates fro m the an terio r ventricle and trifurcates in to a large vessel, the ductus going in to the descending aorta, and tw o small vessels, the p u lm o n ary arteries T h e re are tw o arches in the fetus (aortic arch and curve o f the ductus) and they should be distinguished.