By Harry Braverman
This generally acclaimed booklet, first released in 1974, was once a vintage from its first day in print. Written in a right away, inviting method by way of Harry Braverman, whose years as an business employee gave him wealthy own perception into paintings, Labor and Monopoly Capital overturned the reigning ideologies of educational sociology.
This new version gains an advent through John Bellamy Foster that units the paintings in ancient and theoretical context, in addition to infrequent articles by way of Braverman, "The Degradation of labor within the 20th Century" (1975) and "Two Comments" (1976), that upload a lot to our realizing of the book.
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Additional info for Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century
38. 2. , pp. 38-47. 3. Katherine Stone, "The Origins ofJob Structures in the SteelIndustry," Radical America (November-December 1973), pp. 19-64. 4. 266-67. masses. The verb to manage, from manus, the Latin for hand, originally meant to train a horse in his paces, to cause him to do the exercises of the manege. As capitalism creates a society in which no one is presumed to consult anything but self-interest, and as the employment contract between parties sharing nothing but the inability to avoid each other becomes prevalent, management :« For example, Leffingwell: "Effective management implies control.
He had no way of compelling his workers to do a given number of hours of labour; the domestic weaver or craftsman was master ofhis time, starting and stopping when he desired. " Landes also summarizes othcr "internal contradictions" s of this mode of industrial organization. ** "In general," Marx wrote in a letter to Engels, "the army is important for economic development. For instance, it was in the army that the ancients first fully developed a wage system.... ,,6 The Origins o/Management 45 surplus labor of an enslaved popUlation, with no end in view but the greater glory of the pharaohs here and in the hereafter.
The worker retains it, and the capitalist can take advantage ofthe bargain only by setting the worker to work. It is of course understood that the useful effects or products oflabor belong to the capitalist. But what the worker sells, and what the capitalist buys, is not an agreed amount oflabor, but the power to labor over an agreed period oftime. This inability to purchase labor, which is an inalienable bodily and mental function, and the necessity to purchase the power to perform it, is so fraught with consequences for the entire capitalist mode ofproduction that it must be investigated more closely.