The Condition of the Working Class in England by Friedrich Engels, Victor Kiernan

By Friedrich Engels, Victor Kiernan

This vintage Marxist textual content is a crucial record of social stipulations in a Victorian business urban. Engels describes the appalling stipulations of the operating type with element, accuracy, compassion and anger. He discusses the lifestyle of the manufacturing unit palms, the terrible business injuries and the pollutants of town. He contrasts their squalid residing stipulations with the posh of the bourgeois brands (like himself) and in addition compares Manchester with different Victorian towns. He additionally discusses the inflow of immigrants from eire and from the rustic to the massive towns.

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It is in the earliest oral phase of the first year of life that the child moves from a state of'primary narcissism' (deriving originally from symbiosis with the body of the mother in the womb) - in God and Heaven 47 which they feel in perfect harmonywith the universe, without frus tration, pain or limitation - to a first awareness of their own exis tence as a separate - limited and suffering - individual, profoundly dependent upon adult love and care for their survival. The parents or guardians now become the bearers of the perfect happiness (love, food, protection and power) of the primary narcissistic state.

Or, in some cases, (again, typically amongst Australian Aboriginal groups) such collective property ownership was divided along sexual lines, with certain tracks, areas, sacred sites closed to men or to women. Such groups generally lacked any kind of institutionalised lead ership or power hierarchy, though the older people and others with greater knowledge or experience (generally, or in specific areas), or greater (supposed) magical powers would be respected - or feared and deferred to, by all the rest.

48 Materialism, Psychoanalysis and Religion desperate subordination to, or attempted control of such 'necessary others', or with a regressive retreat into a private fantasy, 'womb', world of their own. At a later stage of psychological development, the 'resolution' of the Oedipus complex marks the point at which the child massively introjects and identifies with the authority, values and demands of the parents or parental generation. Many cultures, in attempting to achieve a final Oedipal resolution in ado lescence, demand that any such dependent feelings —towards other human beings - be radically suppressed or repressed.

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